Study Objective: We provide new descriptive epidemiology on the demography and quality of care of women who experience sexual assault. Two limited aspects of emergency department treatment received by women who have experienced sexual assault are examined: (1) administration of emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy and (2) screening and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
Approximately half of all sexual assaults are associated with either the perpetrator's alcohol consumption, the victim's alcohol consumption, or both. Although the emphasis of this review is on alcohol-involved sexual assaults, their unique aspects can only be evaluated by comparing them to other types of sexual assault. Theoretical perspectives on sexual assault that focus on characteristics of the perpetrator, the victim, and the situation are described.
Meta-analyses of the effectiveness of college sexual assault education programs on seven outcome measure categories were conducted using 69 studies that involved 102 treatment interventions and 18,172 participants. Five of the outcome categories had significant average effect sizes (i.e., rape attitudes, rape-related attitudes, rape knowledge, behavioral intent, and incidence of sexual assault), while the outcome areas of rape empathy and rape awareness behaviors did not have average effect sizes that differed from zero.
Objectives: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate a five-session dating violence prevention curriculum in terms of its effect on attitudes justifying the use of dating violence. Methods: The curriculum was implemented in all health classes in a Long Island, New York, school. A total of 193 students participated (boys, n = 106; girls, n = 87). A quasi=experimental design was used to evaluate change in attitudes justifying dating violence, with health classes randomly assigned to the treatment or no-treatment conditions.
The authors describe an overview of the pilot project Taking Charge, a 36-hour comprehensive behavioral intervention involving psychoeducation, personal safety, and self-defense training for 12 female veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from military sexual trauma. Self-defense training can incorporate the benefits of repeated exposure while teaching proactive cognitive and behavioral responses to the feared stimuli, and thus facilitate emotional and physical rescripting of and mastery over the trauma.
To investigate the effectiveness of a socialization-focused rape prevention program designed specifically for college fraternity men, 90 Greek male participants (mean age 19.6; 95.6% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to 1 to 3 groups: 2 treatment groups and 1 control group. Results suggest that a socialization approach to rape education was as effective as a more traditional prevention program with regard to attitudes and knowledge. Participants in the rape prevention programs, for example, held fewer rape myths and had a clearer understanding of consent than the control group.
Introduces literature on the sexual assault of adult males. Various myths concerning the survivors, perpetrators, and plausibility of such assaults are challenged. Assault prevalence data from a community sample of 1,480 males is presented, along with data from a study of coercion in gay relationships. Problems reported after sexual assault by males are discussed, including confusion about sexual orientation, sexual problems, posttraumatic stress disorder, problems forming close relationships, mistrust of adult men, suicide, and various mood disorders.
While some research has demonstrated the problems associated with sexual assault in urban areas, rural areas, however, have not been studied extensively. The studies on sexual assault in rural areas are discussed and some common concerns are identified. These include stranger versus acquaintance assault, hesitance to report assaults, blaming attitudes, and the need for more and faster services. The need for further research covering risk factors and treatment of sequelae is discussed.
Although prevention efforts aimed at eliminating the occurrence of sexual assault are clearly needed, it is also important to consider how we can prevent further trauma among those already victimized. Prior research suggests that rape survivors may experience victim-blaming treatment from system personnel (termed secondary victimization or the second rape). This research examined how postassault contact with community systems exacerbated rape victims' psychological and physical heath distress.