trauma

Delay in disclosure of childhood rape: results from a national survey

Objective: This study sought to gather representative data regarding the length of time women who were raped before age 18 delayed prior to disclosing such rapes, whom they disclosed to, and variables that predicted disclosure within 1 month. Method: Data were gathered from 3,220 Wave II respondents from the National Women's Study (), a nationally representative telephone survey of women's experiences with trauma and mental health. Of these, 288 retrospectively reported at least one rape prior to their 18th birthday.

Sexual Violence Inside Prisons: Rates of Victimization

Abstractnbsp;nbsp;People in prison are exposed to and experience sexual violence inside prisons, further exposing them to communicable diseases and trauma. The consequences of sexual violence follow the individual into the community upon release. This paper estimates the prevalence of sexual victimization within a state prison system. A total of 6,964 men and 564 women participated in a survey administered using audio-CASI. Weighted estimates of prevalence were constructed by gender and facility size.

Medical and psychiatric symptoms in female gastroenterology clinic patients with histories of sexual victimization

Several recent retrospective reports have associated prior sexual victimization and long-term medical sequelae such as increased medical clinic utilization and reports of physical symptoms. However, methodoligical constraints have limited the generalizability of these findings. Our study was designed using structured interviews with a sequential sample of 89 female gastroenterology clinic patients, who were classified by severity of sexual trauma and studied for differences in lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, physical abuse, and medicially unexplained symptom patterns.

Emotional reactions of rape victim advocates: A multiple case study of anger and fear

This research explores the emotional reactions of a rarely studied group of women who work closely with survivors of sexual violence: rape victim advocates. Women who assist rape victims in obtaining medical, criminal justice, and mental health services were interviewed about their experiences, and qualitative analysis was used to delineate the situational context of the advocates' emotional reactions. Results indicate that respondents experienced anger and fear in response to both individual (e.g., a perpetrator's menacing glare) and environmental (e.g., community denial of a problem) cues.

Vicarious traumatization: A framework for understanding the psychological effects of working with victims

Presents a new constructivist self-development theory for understanding therapists' reactions to clients' traumatic material. This theory is contrasted with previous conceptualizations such as burnout and countertransference. The phenomenon termed "vicarious traumatization" can be understood as related both to the graphic and painful material that trauma clients often present and to the therapist's unique cognitive schemata or beliefs, expectations, and assumptions about self and others.

Non-consensual sex experienced by men who have sex with men: Prevalence and association with mental health

Little is known about the psychosocial factors associated with sexual assault experienced by males. Men (N=358), 19-35 years of age, recruited by community outreach, completed questionnaires. Eligibility criteria included: being HIV-negative and self-identifying as gay or bisexual. Lifetime prevalence rates of childhood sexual abuse, juvenile prostitution, and adult sexual assault were determined.

Sexual Assault in Postmenopausal Women.

Objective: To examine patient characteristics, patterns of injury, forensic evidence, and the frequency of sexual assault in postmenopausal rape victims from 1986-1991., Methods: Medical and forensic records were reviewed from 129 postmenopausal women (50 years of age or older) and 129 women from a comparison group (14-49 years of age) who reported having been sexually assaulted. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, X 2, multiple logistic regression, or Fisher exact test., Results: Postmenopausal women represented 2.2% of women reporting sexual assault in Dallas County.

Child sexual abuse and adulthood sexual assault among military veteran and civilian women

The purpose of this study was to investigate childhood sexual abuse (CSA), adulthood sexual victimization (ASV), and adulthood sexual assault experiences in a comparison sample of female military veterans (n = 142) and civilian community members (n = 81). Women veterans were significantly more likely than civilian women to report adult sexual assault. Although comparable rates of CSA and ASV were found across groups, veterans more frequently reported having been sexually abused by a parental figure, reported longer durations of CSA, and significantly greater severity of ASV than civilians.

Factors associated with women's risk of rape in the military environment

Background: Health hazards specific to women workers have not been adequately documented. This study assessed military environmental factors associated with rape occurring during military service, while controlling for pre-military trauma experience. Methods: A national cross-sectional survey of 588 women veterans serving in Vietnam or in subsequent eras was obtained through structured telephone interviews.

Creating an Alternative Framework for Preventing Rape: Applying Haddon's Injury Prevention Strategies

As rape becomes recognized as a public health issue, new paradigms must be constructed to discover viable solutions to this highly prevalent problem. Although the injury prevention field has begun to examine rape and offer solutions, physical injuries surrounding rape tend to become the focus in injury prevention literature, thereby minimizing the trauma of rape itself. This article applies William Haddon's ten general strategies for injury prevention to rape, in order to shift our focus away from women and their behavior onto the systemic cause of rape.

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