survivors

Emotional reactions of rape victim advocates: A multiple case study of anger and fear

This research explores the emotional reactions of a rarely studied group of women who work closely with survivors of sexual violence: rape victim advocates. Women who assist rape victims in obtaining medical, criminal justice, and mental health services were interviewed about their experiences, and qualitative analysis was used to delineate the situational context of the advocates' emotional reactions. Results indicate that respondents experienced anger and fear in response to both individual (e.g., a perpetrator's menacing glare) and environmental (e.g., community denial of a problem) cues.

Childhood abuse and sexual revictimization in a female Navy recruit sample

To examine effects of childhood abuse on adult rape, 1,887 female Navy recruits were surveyed. Overall 35% of recruits had been raped and 57% had experienced childhood physical abuse (CPA) and/or childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Controlling for CPA, rape was significantly (4.8 times) more likely among women who had experienced CSA than among women who had not. In contrast, CPA (controlling for CSA) was unrelated to likelihood of adult rape. Alcohol problems and number of sex partners were examined as mediators.

High rape chronicity and low rates of help-seeking among wife rape survivors in a nonclinical sample: Implications for research and practice

Research on sexual assault experiences and outcomes has not consistently reported analyses by victim/offender relationship and has not provided much detail on sexual assaults by husbands and ex-husbands. National Crime Victimization Survey data were analyzed to examine sexual assault chronicity and help-seeking behaviors among survivors of marital, acquaintance, and stranger sexual assault.

Rape-related HIV risk concerns among recent rape victims

A sample of 62 recent rape victims who had received postrape medical care were interviewed an average of 6 weeks after being raped (M=37.3 days, SD=19.3 days) to examine fear or concern about contracting HIV as a result of rape. Fifty-seven out of 62 women (91.9%) reported some degree of initial fear or postrape concern about contracting HIV as a result of the rape, and 45 out of 62 women (72.6%) reported that they were extremely fearful or concerned about contracting HIV. Women who were extremely fearful or concerned about contracting HIV were more likely to have been raped by a stranger.

Non-consensual sex experienced by men who have sex with men: Prevalence and association with mental health

Little is known about the psychosocial factors associated with sexual assault experienced by males. Men (N=358), 19-35 years of age, recruited by community outreach, completed questionnaires. Eligibility criteria included: being HIV-negative and self-identifying as gay or bisexual. Lifetime prevalence rates of childhood sexual abuse, juvenile prostitution, and adult sexual assault were determined.

Child sexual abuse and adulthood sexual assault among military veteran and civilian women

The purpose of this study was to investigate childhood sexual abuse (CSA), adulthood sexual victimization (ASV), and adulthood sexual assault experiences in a comparison sample of female military veterans (n = 142) and civilian community members (n = 81). Women veterans were significantly more likely than civilian women to report adult sexual assault. Although comparable rates of CSA and ASV were found across groups, veterans more frequently reported having been sexually abused by a parental figure, reported longer durations of CSA, and significantly greater severity of ASV than civilians.

Health concerns of university women with a history of child physical and sexual maltreatment

Three health symptom checklists were used to measure physical health concerns among university women in relation to prior child physical maltreatment (CPM) (20%, n=153) and child sexual abuse (CSA) (19%, n=143). A history of CPM was related to all three general areas of health concerns as well as many of the specific subscales comprising measures (e.g., muscular-related symptoms and gynecological problems), whereas an interaction between CSA and CPM was linked to greater premenstrual distress subscale scores (particularly emotional and behavioral symptoms).

Using Social Self-Identification in Social Marketing Materials Aimed at Reducing Violence Against Women on Campus

Bystander-focused in person sexual violence prevention programs provide an opportunity for skill development among bystanders and for widening the safety net for survivors. A social marketing campaign was designed modeling prosocial bystander behavior and using content familiar to target audience members by staging and casting scenes to look similar to the people and situations that the target audience regularly encounters. We refer to this sense of familiarity as social self-identification.

Acquaintance rape among adolescents: Identifying risk groups and intervention strategies

Discusses the phenomenon of acquaintance rape (AR) with regard to its frequency, patterns of occurrence, characteristics of potential assailants, and behaviors that place adolescents at risk for becoming AR victims. Attention is given to the counseling needs of female victims of heterosexual rape as well as to appropriate advocacy roles for the social worker to adopt with schools, police, medical professionals, and the victim's family and friends. Working on improving self-esteem is one of the best prevention strategies social workers can employ with at risk teenagers.

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