A survivor's group for women who have a learning disability

Describes a women's group run for 6 women (aged 20-33 yrs) with learning disabilities and a history of sexual abuse/assault. It outlines the format of the group sessions, the therapeutic process and the outcome of the evaluation of the impact of the group on the women's psychological well-being, self-esteem, assertiveness and general satisfaction with the intervention. The outcome was generally favorable, however, this was not maintained on all the measures at 3 mo follow-up. Possible reasons for the results are discussed, along with recommendations for future group work.

Taking Charge: A Pilot Curriculum of Self-Defense and Personal Safety Training for Female Veterans With PTSD Because of Military Sexual Trauma

The authors describe an overview of the pilot project Taking Charge, a 36-hour comprehensive behavioral intervention involving psychoeducation, personal safety, and self-defense training for 12 female veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from military sexual trauma. Self-defense training can incorporate the benefits of repeated exposure while teaching proactive cognitive and behavioral responses to the feared stimuli, and thus facilitate emotional and physical rescripting of and mastery over the trauma.

Male victims of rape and sexual abuse

Introduces literature on the sexual assault of adult males. Various myths concerning the survivors, perpetrators, and plausibility of such assaults are challenged. Assault prevalence data from a community sample of 1,480 males is presented, along with data from a study of coercion in gay relationships. Problems reported after sexual assault by males are discussed, including confusion about sexual orientation, sexual problems, posttraumatic stress disorder, problems forming close relationships, mistrust of adult men, suicide, and various mood disorders.

Personal and organizational predictors of workplace sexual harassment of women by men

The authors investigated the predictors of workplace sexual harassment in 278 male university faculty and staff (M age = 45 years). Workplace variables (perceptions of organizational sanctions against harassment and perceptions of a sexualized workplace) and personal variables (adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual harassment beliefs, perspective taking, and self-esteem) were studied as predictors of sexualized and gender harassment. Social desirability was controlled. Both organizational variables and beliefs about sexual harassment predicted gender harassment and sexualized harassment.

Living at the intersection: The effects of racism and sexism on Black rape survivors

Empirical and clinical data indicate that Black rape survivors are blamed more and are less likely to disclose their assaults than other women. We propose that these differences are, in large part, due to how Black women are perceived and evaluated. Specifically, we link two historical images of Black women, Jezebel and Matriarch, to the contemporary experience of Black rape survivors. The paradoxical and destructive implications of these images on Black rape survivors' decisions to disclose and report their rapes are discussed. Racially sensitive intervention strategies are also provided.

Forced Sex and Intimate Partner Violence

A volunteer community sample of 159 primarily (77%) African American battered women were interviewed about forced sex by their partner (or ex-partner). Almost half (45.9%) of the sample had been sexually assaulted as well as physically abused. Except for ethnicity, there were no demographic differences between those who were forced into sex and those who were not, and there was no difference in history of child sexual abuse.

Community services for rape survivors: enhancing psychological well-being or increasing trauma?

This research examined how contact with the legal, medical, and mental health systems affects rape survivors' psychological well-being. Although community services may be beneficial for some victims, there is increasing evidence that they can add trauma, rather than alleviate distress (termed secondary victimization). This study examined how secondary victimization affects rape survivors' posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Adaptive and snowball sampling were used to recruit a sample of 102 rape survivors.

Preventing the second rape: Rape survivors' experiences with community service providers

Although prevention efforts aimed at eliminating the occurrence of sexual assault are clearly needed, it is also important to consider how we can prevent further trauma among those already victimized. Prior research suggests that rape survivors may experience victim-blaming treatment from system personnel (termed secondary victimization or the second rape). This research examined how postassault contact with community systems exacerbated rape victims' psychological and physical heath distress.

Understanding rape and sexual assault: 20 years of progress and future directions

During the past 20 years, researchers have documented the widespread problem of rape in American society. Approximately one in four women are raped in their adult lifetime, which causes severe psychological distress and long-term physical health problems. The impact of sexual assault extends far beyond rape survivors as their family, friends, and significant others are also negatively affected. Moreover, those who help rape victims, such as rape victim advocates, therapists, as well as sexual assault researchers, can experience vicarious trauma.


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