Alcohol, athletics, and fraternities have been targeted in the popular media as primary causes of sexual aggression on campus. Except in the case of alcohol, the empirical data supporting these associations is weak. The present study assessed the joint contribution of these three variables to the prediction of sexual aggression among a sample of 530 undergraduate men including 140 athletes representing all varsity sports.
Psychosocial and emotional characteristics were assessed in a survey of a nonclinical sample of 1,385 adolescent Mexican American and White non-Hispanic males. 54 males who reported being sexually assaulted one or more times were compared to 1,331 males who reported no history of sexual assault. Sexually assaulted male victims were more emotionally distressed, socially isolated, deviant (e.g., lying and stealing), likely to affiliate with deviant peers, and to come from homes in which there was parental substance use, than males who do not report sexual assault.
This study investigated the incidence and tolerance of potentially offensive sexual behaviors in relation to the gender composition of adolescents' friendship networks. High-school students (Grades 8 and 11) self-reported on the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire--High School and on the Social Network Form. Adolescents whose friendship network included a relatively greater proportion of other-sex friends tended to be those who experienced some form of potentially offensive sexual behaviors.
The authors examined how well identified rapists could be discriminated from non-sex offenders using phallometric assessments, what variables might moderate this discrimination, and whether rapists respond more to descriptions of rape than to consenting sex. 11 primary and 5 secondary phallometric studies involving 415 rapists and 192 non-sex offenders were examined using meta-analytic techniques. Study effect sizes averaged 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.16 to 1.49).
According to the mate deprivation hypothesis of sexual coercion, males are more likely to use sexually coercive tactics if they are disadvantaged in gaining access to desirable mates. This hypothesis was tested in a sample of 156 young, heterosexual, mostly single men enrolled in a Canadian university. Differential access to mates was indexed by self-perceived mating success, self-reported sexual history, and relative earning potential. Sexual coercion was assessed using the M. P. Koss and C. J. Oros (1982) sexual experiences survey.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from aggravated assault, rape, or noncrime trauma affects over 4 million women in the United States, according to retrospective studies. Prospective studies reviewed here found that 3 months post assault the prevalence of PTSD was 48% in rape victims and 25% in nonsexual crime victims. Prolonged exposure treatment and stress inoculation training are both effective psychotherapeutic treatments for PTSD. Prolonged exposure involves having the patient relive the traumatic memory and recount the event in detail.
Rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and sexually coercive behavior of 145 fraternity men randomly assigned to a control group or a rape-prevention program were surveyed. One third of 23 fraternities on a mid-Atlantic public university campus volunteered to participate in the study.
Rape victim-blaming attitudes are examined with data from a probability sample of students at a southern university (male, n = 511; female, n = 666). Hypotheses derived from two competing versions of attribution theory, "defensive attribution" and "need for control," are tested to examine the effects of gender, past female sexual victimization, past male sexual aggression, nonsexual crime victimization, and risk taking on rape myth acceptance.
Naturalistic approaches to program evaluation generate multiple interpretations and possible conclusions, but lack inherent guidance on how to choose among or reconcile them. A practical frame of reference for addressing this challenge emphasizes criteria of utility and credibility, as well as an evaluation process that is participatory and openly value-pluralistic. This paper discusses the logic of justification underlying such a practical perspective.