prevention

Estimating Hospital Charges Associated With Intimate Violence

The cost of treating intimate violence can be estimated by using data collected by hospital-based programs that identify and document such violence. This article examines previous methods applied to estimate hospital charges associated with violence as well as our own experience using data collected by a hospital-based violence prevention program in Chicago, Illinois. Five basic steps for estimating hospital charges associated with treating intimate violence are described.

Treatment for survivors of rape: Issues and interventions

In this article, treatment issues in counseling survivors of rape are reviewed, including sociocultural influences on a women's response to rape, a survivor's history of victimization, the specific nature of the assault, and a survivor's experiences with self-blame. A multimodal treatment approach for women who experience chronic symptoms of posttraumtic stress disorder in the aftermath of rape is also presented.

Altering masculinities: The Spanish Conquest and the evolution of the Latin American machismo

Machismo, a stereotype that emphasizes hypermasculinity and associated with the Latin American male, was a legacy of the Conquest of the Spanish conquistadores and their interpretation of and reaction to the indigenous two-spirit. It was the product of the rape of indigenous women, the response to indigenous imperial ritual, and the sublimation of indigenous male sexuality. It was a response to social and religious control of the male body. As such, it is not something that is easily eradicated.

The Impact of Male Work Environments and Organizational Policies on Women's Experiences of Sexual Harassment

Women's experiences with sexual harassment were analyzed with three types of variables: occupational and workplace sex ratios, organizational policies and procedures for dealing with sexual harassment problems, and women's cultural status (age and marital status). Regression analyses revealed that extent of contact with men was a key predictor of incidence of harassment, number of different types of harrassment, sexual comments, sexual categorical remarks, and sexual materials. Gender predominance was a significant predictor of physical threats and sexual materials.

The Dominance Scale: preliminary psychometric properties

Dominance may be the most widely mentioned risk factor for physical assaults on an intimate partner, but empirical studies have found mixed results. A new measure, the Dominance Scale, operationalizes a reconceptualization that examines three different forms of dominance: Authority, Restrictiveness, and Disparagement. Preliminary psychometric characteristics demonstrated good distributions and internal consistency in a sample of 131 undergraduates.

I can take care of myself: The impact of self-defense training on women's lives

Feminist self-defense classes teach skills for preventing and responding to violence. However, self-defense training has many other positive effects on women's lives--effects that themselves may reduce women's risk of assault. In this article the author offers evidence of these effects drawn from a longitudinal study of self-defense training.

Challenging despair: Teaching about women's resistance to violence

In this article, the author describes an approach to teaching about violence against women that balances discussion of violence with information about women's individual and collective resistance. This strategy addresses two concerns about traditional approaches to this topic: that focusing only on victimization disempowers students and that it provides only a partial view of the reality of violence in women's lives.

But was it wanted?: Young women's first voluntary sexual intercourse

Existing literature on sexual intercourse is based on the assumption that if an individual engages in sexual activity, not self-defined as rape, then the activity must have been wanted by both partners. This study, using National Survey of Family Growth, identifies factors associated with the "wantedness" of first sexual intercourse for young women in the United States. Approximately 28% of respondents described their first sexual event as not really wanted. The most commonly reported score demonstrated a level of ambivalence regarding wantedness of first sex.

Acquaintance rape prevention with high-risk women: identification and inoculation

Reasons are presented why rape education programming for women who have been sexually victimized may need to be different and separate from general programming. A process for identifying high-risk women is described. "Inoculation," a counseling group process, is described. Evaluation, feedback, and recommendations are reported. (EMK)

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