health

Predicting women's perceptions of domestic violence and sexual assault agency helpfulness: what matters to program clients?

Study goals were to assess if community agency interactions, the characteristics of services provided by staff, and the combinations of services received can predict women's perceptions of victim service helpfulness around domestic violence and sexual assault. Data were collected from agency representatives in 26 communities, and both women who used services and others living in the community (n = 1,509 women).

Psychosocial correlates of physical dating violence victimization among Latino early adolescents

This study examined the association between dating violence victimization and psychosocial risk and protective factors among Latino early adolescents. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to a convenience sample of Latino youth (n = 322) aged 11 to 13 residing in suburban Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was physical dating violence; the independent variables included violence, substance use, emotional well-being, prosocial behaviors, and parenting practices.

Costs of health care use by women HMO members with a history of childhood abuse and neglect

Examined differences in annual health care use and costs in women with and without histories of childhood maltreatment. 1225 women (aged 18-65 yrs), who were currently enrolled in an health maintenance organization (HMO), completed a questionnaire inquiring about childhood maltreatment in 5 areas: emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect. Information on health care cost and utilization were obtained from the automated cost-accounting system of the HMO.

Medical and psychiatric symptoms in female gastroenterology clinic patients with histories of sexual victimization

Several recent retrospective reports have associated prior sexual victimization and long-term medical sequelae such as increased medical clinic utilization and reports of physical symptoms. However, methodoligical constraints have limited the generalizability of these findings. Our study was designed using structured interviews with a sequential sample of 89 female gastroenterology clinic patients, who were classified by severity of sexual trauma and studied for differences in lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, physical abuse, and medicially unexplained symptom patterns.

Sexual assault history and health-related outcomes in a national sample of women

This study examined correlates of past-year chronic medical conditions and lifetime contact with health care professionals for mental health and substance abuse problems in women with differing histories of sexual victimization (N = 627) identified from the National Comorbidity Survey (e.g., assault in childhood, adulthood, or both life phases). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stressful life events were associated with greater odds of chronic medical conditions among women sexually assaulted in childhood only.

Emotional reactions of rape victim advocates: A multiple case study of anger and fear

This research explores the emotional reactions of a rarely studied group of women who work closely with survivors of sexual violence: rape victim advocates. Women who assist rape victims in obtaining medical, criminal justice, and mental health services were interviewed about their experiences, and qualitative analysis was used to delineate the situational context of the advocates' emotional reactions. Results indicate that respondents experienced anger and fear in response to both individual (e.g., a perpetrator's menacing glare) and environmental (e.g., community denial of a problem) cues.

Media Literacy as a Violence-Prevention Strategy: A Pilot Evaluation

Youth violence is a major unresolved public health problem in the United States and media exposure to violence is a synergistic source of this national problem. One media literacy curriculum designed specifically to address this issue is Beyond Blame: Challenging Violence in the Media. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the curriculum's feasibility as a full-scale intervention. Intervention and control groups were similar with respect to knowledge of the Beyond Blame curriculum at baseline.

Developing Teen Dating Violence Prevention Strategies: Formative Research With Middle School Youth

Intimate partner violence (IPV) peaks in youth and young adulthood and is associated with multiple adolescent risk behaviors and negative health outcomes. Targeting youth with prevention messages before they start dating may avert teen dating violence and subsequent adult IPV. This article discusses findings from focus groups with middle school youth to determine behaviors and beliefs regarding dating violence.

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