health

Longitudinal predictors of serious physical and sexual dating violence victimization during adolescence

BACKGROUND: This study identifies potentially modifiable risk factors for the onset of and chronic victimization from serious physical and sexual dating violence. METHODS: One thousand two hundred ninety-one 8th and 9th graders from a county in North Carolina were assessed annually for 5 and 4 years, respectively. RESULTS: For males, having been hit by an adult with the intention of harm, having low self-esteem, and having been in a physical fight with a peer predicted onset of serious physical dating violence victimization.

A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims

Ninety-six female assault victims with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomly assigned to 4 treatment conditions: prolonged exposure (PE), stress inoculation training (SIT), combined treatment (PE-SIT), or wait-list control (WL). Treatment consisted of 9 twice-weekly, individual sessions. Independent evaluations were conducted at pretreatment; posttreatment; and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups.

That's not my problem: Convergence and divergence between self- and other-identified problems among homeless adolescents

Mental health symptoms, victimization experiences, and rates of substance use among homeless youth were assessed using typical clinical intake questions and standard questionnaires. Youth were also asked what they regarded as their primary problems. Results indicated that issues likely to concern health professionals, such as past victimization, high rates of substance use, and psychological symptoms, are often not regarded as problems by homeless youth.

Violence against women: Mental health effects. Part II: Conceptualizations of posttraumatic stress

A broad range of psychological aftereffects have been noted among women who have experienced male-perpetrated violence. These symptoms vary considerably among individuals, across social contexts, and across different types of violent encounters [cite]. Nevertheless, a remarkably consistent picture of the psychological sequelae of violence--particularly sexual and physical assault--emerges from the empirical and clinical literature [cites].

Trauma and women: Course, predictors, and treatment

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from aggravated assault, rape, or noncrime trauma affects over 4 million women in the United States, according to retrospective studies. Prospective studies reviewed here found that 3 months post assault the prevalence of PTSD was 48% in rape victims and 25% in nonsexual crime victims. Prolonged exposure treatment and stress inoculation training are both effective psychotherapeutic treatments for PTSD. Prolonged exposure involves having the patient relive the traumatic memory and recount the event in detail.

Sexual bullying. Addressing the gap between bullying and dating violence.

Millions of youth in the United States are involved in some aspects of bullying behavior. Increasing rates of youth violence, including horrific violent school events, have brought national attention upon the phenomenon. Bullying is a broad construct that covers a wide variety of behaviors from name calling to physical abuse, and it is associated with serious negative health outcomes.

The global health burden of rape

Focuses on research on the physiological effect of rape on women. Rape myths; Health consequences of rape; Normative and non-normative rape; Ethnographic studies on rape. The focus of this paper is the health burden of rape, which is addressed from the global perspective and includes discussion of its prevalence and psychological, sociocultural, somatic, andPersonal reproductive health consequences. Quantitative efforts to capture the relative economic impact of rape compared to other threats to women's health are also discussed.

Barriers to Services for Rural and Urban Survivors of Rape

A significant proportion of survivors of rape do not utilize formal services to cope with the aftermath of rape. Understanding victimization experiences in environments that differ on resources, such as rural versus urban areas, may be an important dimension to consider in understanding barriers. Thirty women (18 rural and 12 urban) were recruited from rape crisis centers to participate in focus groups.

Violence: recognition, management and prevention. Why women don't report sexual assault to the police: The influence of psychosocial variables and traumatic injury

The purpose of this study was to identify the variables that acutely influence reporting practices in female sexual assault victims presenting to an urban clinic or Emergency Department. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of consecutive female victims during an 18-month study period. Patient demographics, assault characteristics, and injury patterns were recorded in all eligible patients using a standardized classification system.

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