The multidimensional nature of sexual harassment: An empirical analysis of women's sexual harassment complaints.

Little information is available concerning women's formal complaints of sexual harassment. Using data from sexual harassment complaints lodged with the Canadian Human Rights Commission between 1978 and 1993, this research attempts to address two concerns: (a) What types of sexual harassment behaviors are experienced by women complainants? and (b) Are these experiences of sexual harassment characterized by isolated or multidimensional incidents? The research shows that women complainants experience a range of behaviors, with quid pro quo harassment occurring in only 14% of the complaints.

Examining the sexual harassment experiences of Mexican immigrant farmworking women

This study examined sexual harassment experiences of Mexican immigrant farmworking women (n = 150) employed on California farms. Of the estimated one million California farmworkers, 78% are Latino, mostly from Mexico, and 28% are women. Unlike gender-segregated worksites of Mexico, women farmworkers in the United States labor alongside men, facilitating harassment from coworkers and supervisors. Simultaneous sexist, racist, and economic discrimination are comparable to converging lanes of automobile traffic (Crenshaw, 2000) that women, standing at the intersections, manage to avoid harm.

The Expect Respect Project: Creating a Positive Elementary School Climate

The Expect Respect Project, a violence prevention program, was developed to reduce the incidence of bullying and sexual harassment by creating a positive school climate in which inappropriate behaviors are not tolerated and staff members respond consistently to incidents. The project implemented an educational intervention for students, parents, and staff members on expecting respect in student relationships and strategies for responding to inappropriate student behaviors. This article describes the educational intervention and evaluation of the project.

Hostile masculinity, sexual aggression, and gender-biased domineeringness in conversations.

Assessed the ability of certain variables to predict which men would be more domineering in conversations with a woman and/or with a man. The variables included men's self-reported sexually aggressive behavior and several components comprising a personality profile labeled "Hostile Masculinity." Data from 67 male undergraduates indicate these variables successfully predicted domineering behavior toward the female but not toward the male.

Gender differences in sexual harassment and coercion in college students: Developmental, individual, and situational determinants

Differences in male (N=143) and female (N=278) college students' use of sexually harassing and coercive behaviors were investigated. Men were twice as likely to be sexually harassing and 3 times more likely to be sexually coercive as women. Among men, sexual harassment was predicted by child sexual abuse, hostility, adversarial heterosexual beliefs, and alcohol expectancy, with the later mediating the effects of aggression. Sexual coercion was predicted by adult sexual victimization and alcohol expectancy, with alcohol expectancy again mediating the effect of aggression.

Predictors of tolerance of sexual harassment among male U.S. Army soldiers

Tolerance of sexual harassment in the Army was examined in relation to three variables indicative of negative attitudes toward women among 1,060 male soldiers. The first was a personality variable, negative masculinity, associated with narcissistic and aggressive characteristics; the second was a variable measuring hostility toward women; the third was a measure of acceptance of women as men's equals in the Army. In a MANOVA analysis, all three variables were significant predictors of tolerance of sexual harassment in the Army.

Students' perceptions of sexual harassment: Is it harassment only if the offender is a man and the victim is a woman?

The present study investigated 3 potential sources of variability in university students' perceptions of sexual harassment in hypothetical professor-student scenarios: raters' gender, gender of the professor and student, and rater's own sexual harassment. Participants were most likely to identify the interactions as harassment when they involved a male offender and a female victim. They were less likely to label the behaviors as harassment when they occurred between members of the same gender or between a female professor and a male student.

Factors associated with women's risk of rape in the military environment

Background: Health hazards specific to women workers have not been adequately documented. This study assessed military environmental factors associated with rape occurring during military service, while controlling for pre-military trauma experience. Methods: A national cross-sectional survey of 588 women veterans serving in Vietnam or in subsequent eras was obtained through structured telephone interviews.

Critical climate: Relations among sexual harassment, climate, and outcomes for high school girls and boys

This study examined the relationships among peer-to-peer sexual harassment, school climate, adult-to-student harassment, and outcomes (psychological and physical well-being; school withdrawal and safety) for high school girls (n= 310) and boys (n= 259) recruited from seven public high schools in a Midwestern state. More frequent, severe peer harassment was associated with being female; holding climate perceptions that one's school is tolerant of the harassment of girls; and experiencing more frequent, severe harassment by school personnel.

Sexual harassment: A review of the literature

Reviews the published research on sexual harassment. Definitional, epidemiological, etiological, treatment, and prevention issues are examined as well as the literature on the effects of sexual harassment. Suggestions for future research are provided. Although there are many controversies concerning the definition of sexual harassment, it is clear that there are subtypes of sexual harassment, such as gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion.


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