A volunteer community sample of 159 primarily (77%) African American battered women were interviewed about forced sex by their partner (or ex-partner). Almost half (45.9%) of the sample had been sexually assaulted as well as physically abused. Except for ethnicity, there were no demographic differences between those who were forced into sex and those who were not, and there was no difference in history of child sexual abuse. However, those who were sexually assaulted had higher scores on negative health symptoms, gynecological symptoms, and risk factors for homicide even when controlling for physical abuse and demographic variables. The number of sexual assaults (childhood, rape, and intimate partner) was significantly correlated with depression and body image.
Violence Against Women
Authors examined the relationship between forced sex and women's self-esteem and health status